basic cantonese language

It is the traditional prestige variety of the Yue Chinese dialect group, which has over 80 million native speakers. A 2010 proposal to switch some programming on Guangzhou television from Cantonese to Mandarin was abandoned following massive public protests, the largest since the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. [23], In Singapore, Mandarin is the official variety of the Chinese language used by the government, which has a Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC) seeking to actively promote the use of Mandarin at the expense of other Chinese varieties. Some of the loanwords are even more popular than their Chinese counterparts. The examples below are written in the Roman alphabet and because of the tonal differences, their pronunciation can make them difficult to understand. [38] For example, in New York City, Cantonese still predominates in the city's older, traditional western portion of Chinatown in Manhattan and in Brooklyn's small new Chinatowns in sections of Bensonhurst and in Homecrest. (li go) h i gon dUng wa dim gon a? [25] The prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, then, also stopped giving speeches in Hokkien to prevent giving conflicting signals to the people. The majority of Chinese emigrants have traditionally originated from Guangdong and Guangxi, as well as Hong Kong and Macau (beginning in the latter half of the 20th century and before the Handover) and Southeast Asia, with Cantonese as their native language. While a number of more-established Taiwanese immigrants have learned Cantonese to foster relations with the traditional Cantonese-speaking Chinese American population, more recent arrivals and the larger number of mainland Chinese immigrants have largely continued to use Mandarin as the exclusive variety of Chinese. In these areas, public discourse takes place almost exclusively in Cantonese, making it the only variety of Chinese other than Mandarin to be used as an official language in the world. Socioeconomic statuses are also a factor as well. This has contributed to a segregation of communities based on linguistic cleavage. Less prevalent, but still notable differences found among a number of Hong Kong speakers include: Cantonese vowels tend to be traced further back to Middle Chinese than their Mandarin analogues, such as M. /aɪ/ vs. C. /ɔːi/; M. /i/ vs. C. /ɐi/; M. /ɤ/ vs. C. /ɔː/; M. /ɑʊ/ vs. C. /ou/ etc. Another key feature of Hong Kong Cantonese is the merging of the two syllabic nasals /ŋ̩/ and /m̩/. For related languages and dialects, see, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFZhangYangDang2004 (, proposal to switch some programming on Guangzhou television, Literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters, development of democracy in the territory, Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation, A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced According to the Dialect of Canton, Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, List of English words of Cantonese origin, "The Hong Kong Observatory is one of the examples of the Hong Kong Government officially adopting the name "廣東話, "Basic Law, Chapter I : General Principles", "Move to Limit Cantonese on Chinese TV Is Assailed", "Why Cantonese spoken in Malaysia sounds different to Hong Kong Cantonese, and no it's not 'wrong, "Profile of the Singapore Chinese dialect groups", "Use of dialects interfere with learning of Mandarin & English", "The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand", "Mandarin Use Up in Chinese American Communities", "As Mandarin language becomes standard, Chinatown explores new identity", "In Chinatown, Sound of the Future Is Mandarin", "Bensonhurst becomes Brooklyn's second Chinatown", "With an Influx of Newcomers, Little Chinatowns Dot a Changing Brooklyn", "Mapping America: Every City, Every Block", https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/planning/download/pdf/data-maps/nyc-population/nny2013/chapter3.pdf, "The changing Chinatowns: Move over Manhattan, Sunset Park now home to most Chinese in NYC", "Why is Canada keeping out China's rich? Cantonese is the dominant form of Chinese in Hong Kong. [64] Such actions have further provoked Cantonese speakers to cherish their linguistic identity in contrast to migrants who have generally arrived from poorer areas of China and largely speak Mandarin or other Chinese languages.[65]. Welcome! How to say yes and no in Cantonese! At the same time, some new words created are vividly borrowed by other languages as well. Among the Chinese community in France, Cantonese is spoken by immigrants who fled the former French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) following the conflicts and communist takeovers in the region during the 1970s. Increasingly since the 1997 Handover, Cantonese has been used as a symbol of local identity in Hong Kong, largely through the development of democracy in the territory and desinicization practices to emphasise a separate Hong Kong identity. Cantonese is an analytic language in which the arrangement of words in a sentence is important to its meaning. Cantonese is one of the world's most difficult languages to learn. Chinese is the third most widely spoken non-English language in the United States when both Cantonese and Mandarin are combined, behind Spanish and French. [21][22], Cantonese spoken in Malaysia and Singapore often exhibits influences from Malay and other Chinese varieties spoken in the country, such as Hokkien and Teochew. What Is the Difference Between Mandarin and Cantonese? Although Wong also derived a romanization scheme, also known as the S. L. Wong system, it is not widely used as his transcription scheme. This system was preceded by the Barnett–Chao system used by the Hong Government Language School. $49.99/month or $249.95/year for all languages. Systematic efforts to develop an alphabetic representation of Cantonese began with the arrival of Protestant missionaries in China early in the nineteenth century. Hong Kong and Macau. The Zhongshan variant of Cantonese, with origins in the western Pearl River Delta, is spoken by many Chinese immigrants in Hawaii, and some in San Francisco and the Sacramento River Delta (see Locke, California); it is a Yuehai variety much like Guangzhou Cantonese, but has "flatter" tones. In contrast, standard written Chinese continues to be used in formal literature, professional and government documents, television and movie subtitles, and news media. The major systems are: Jyutping, Yale, the Chinese government's Guangdong Romanization, and Meyer–Wempe. The good news is the majority of residents of Hong Kong can speak at least a little basic English, and you're unlikely to find a total lack of Cantonese will impede you at any point. The official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. Variety of Yue Chinese spoken in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau, This article is about the variety of Chinese widely spoken in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau. Most of these are rare outside their native areas, though they may be spoken outside of China. Since a 1909 Qing dynasty decree, China has promoted Mandarin for use in education, the media, and official communications. It is also used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a language that originated in the vicinity of Canton (i.e., Guangzhou) in southern China, and is often regarded as the prestige dialect of Yue. In Northern California, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area, Cantonese has historically and continues to dominate in the Chinatowns of San Francisco and Oakland, as well as the surrounding suburbs and metropolitan area, although since the late 2000s, a concentration of Mandarin speakers has formed in Silicon Valley. The increase of Mandarin-speaking communities has resulted in the rise of separate neighborhoods or enclaves segregated by the primary Chinese variety spoken. Furthermore, the system of Macau differs slightly from Hong Kong's in that the spellings are influenced by the Portuguese language due to colonial history. What Is the Official Language of Hong Kong? As in the United States, the Chinese Canadian community traces its roots to early immigrants from Guangdong during the latter half of the 19th century. As a result, Mandarin is becoming more common among the Chinese American community. Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton, which is the traditional English name of Guangzhou. Learning Cantonese? Basic Cantonese characters are also incorporated at all three levels. You can now read the ebook (in the pane on the left), listen to the audio (pane to the right) and practice your pronunciation (use on the Pronunciation Tool tab on right) all at the same time.. Since the late-20th century, however, Mandarin- and Wu-speaking migrants from mainland China have outnumbered those from Macau, although Cantonese is still retained among mainstream Chinese community associations.[53]. Learn Cantonese Online. However, due to the rapid gentrification of Manhattan's Chinatown and with NYC's Cantonese and Fuzhou populations now increasingly shifting to other Chinese enclaves in the Outer Boroughs of NYC such as Brooklyn and Queens, but most mainly in Brooklyn's newer Chinatowns, the Cantonese speaking population in NYC are now increasingly becoming more mainly concentrated into Brooklyn's neighborhoods of Bensonhurst and Homecrest, also known as Bensonhurst's Little Hong Kong/Guangdong and Homecrest's Little Hong Kong/Guangdong while the Fuzhou population of NYC are increasingly becoming more mainly concentrated into Brooklyn's neighborhood of Sunset Park, also known as Little Fuzhou, Brooklyn, which is now increasingly resulting in NYC's growing Cantonese and Fuzhou enclaves to become more increasingly distanced and isolated away from each other including much more isolated away from other Chinese enclaves in the NYC borough of Queens that have more Mandarin and other various diverse Chinese dialect speakers. Hong Kong, Macau, Vietnam, etc.) Television networks in Malaysia regularly broadcast Hong Kong television programmes in their original Cantonese audio and soundtrack. As in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in everyday life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. Cantonese romanization systems are based on the accent of Canton and Hong Kong, and have helped define the concept of Standard Cantonese. [63] Additionally, there are reports of students being punished for speaking other Chinese languages at school, resulting in a reluctance of younger children to communicate in their native languages, including Cantonese. [35] Many institutes of higher education have traditionally had Chinese programs based on Cantonese, with some continuing to offer these programs despite the rise of Mandarin. A list of Basic Chinese words and phrases translated into English. Cantonese drama series on terrestrial TV channels are instead dubbed in Mandarin and broadcast without the original Cantonese audio and soundtrack. [49] Later Chinese immigrants came from Hong Kong in two waves, first in the late 1960s to mid 1970s, and again in the 1980s to late 1990s on fears arising from the impending handover to the People's Republic of China. to assert their identity in the face of new waves of immigration. For most people, online resources and self-study may not be enough to learn a language from scratch, especially a tonal language, but this might help to supplement your other resources. Prepare for Your Trip Here, Impress Your Dutch Friends With These Essential Phrases, Here's How to Extend a Few Pleasantries in the Greek Language, Why Is the Character Upside Down? If you're looking for a good all-around Cantonese program to get started with, I recommend CantoneseClass101.com. [70] An example of this is manifested in the word for you (你), pronounced as néih in Guangzhou and as léih in Hong Kong. Romanization was considered both a tool to help new missionaries learn the variety more easily and a quick route for the unlettered to achieve gospel literacy. Hong Kong and Macau. As a result, Cantonese is being given a more important status by the natives than ever before as a common identity of the local people.[15]. Some of these websites have additional paid portions for additional resources. Robert Morrison, the first Protestant missionary in China published a "Vocabulary of the Canton Dialect" (1828) with a rather unsystematic romanized pronunciation. The phonetic values of some consonants are closer to the approximate equivalents in IPA than in other systems. An influential work on Cantonese, A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced According to the Dialect of Canton, written by Wong Shik Ling, was published in 1941. [58] After the Xinhai Revolution of 1912, Cantonese almost became the official language of the Republic of China but lost by a small margin. Please check back! While the governments of Hong Kong and Macau utilize a romanization system for proper names and geographic locations, they are inconsistent in the transcription of some sounds and the systems are not taught in schools. tsen lei gon man di: Back to Learn Cantonese. [66], A similar identity issue exists in the United States, where conflicts have arisen among Chinese-speakers due to a large recent influx of Mandarin-speakers. Nicholas Belfeld Dennys used Chalmers romanization in his primer. Chau vs Chao 周, Leung vs Leong 梁). CantoneseClass101.com - Learn Cantonese with … Cantonese is the predominant Chinese variety spoken in Hong Kong and Macau. In contrast, less educated speakers pronounce the merge more frequently.[71]. Both the spellings of Hong Kong and Macau Cantonese romanization systems do not look similar to the mainland China's pinyin system. [citation needed] As a result, locals do not learn any of these systems. Each of the 28 units deals with a grammatical topic and provides associated exercises, designed to put grammar into a communicative context. As a visitor to Hong Kong, you will spend a lot of time in restaurants and shops. We teach in a play based environment. Flushing's large Chinatown, which now holds the crown as the largest Chinatown of the city, and Elmhurst's smaller Chinatown in Queens are very mixed, with large numbers of Mandarin speakers from many various different regions of China and Taiwan. Chinese-language schools in Thailand have also traditionally been conducted in Cantonese. Lam 林, Chan 陳). There will be more Cantonese resources and useful info to come. Meanwhile, Cantonese has remained the official variety of Chinese in Hong Kong and Macau, both during and after the colonial period.[60]. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals. They have been proven effective for learning Cantonese if you put in the effort to go through the lessons. However, it has a relatively minor presence compared to other Southeast Asian nations, being the fourth most spoken Chinese variety after Hokkien, Hakka and Teochew. Introduction - Basic Language - Characters - Dictionary - Calligraphy - Oracle bones - 100 Names - Three Characters - Thousand Characters - Traditional - Wade Giles - Strokes - Numbers - Date & Time - Lesson 2 - Lesson 3 - Proverbs - Poetry - Good Fortune - Cantonese- Pidgin This is a result of teachers being penalized for using other varieties as the teaching language from mid-1990s. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. In Vietnam, Cantonese is the dominant language of the ethnic Chinese community, usually referred to as Hoa, which numbers about one million people and constitutes one of the largest minority groups in the country. The de facto standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Canton (Guangzhou). Over the course of the last year, I rarely studied Cantonese for more than 15-30 minutes a day. As Cantonese is used primarily in Hong Kong, Macau, and other overseas Chinese communities, it is usually written with traditional Chinese characters. An example is in the word for country (國), pronounced in standard Guangzhou as gwok but as gok with the merge. However, more recent immigrants are arriving from the rest of mainland China and Taiwan and most often speak Standard Mandarin (Putonghua) as their native language,[36][37] although some may also speak their native local variety, such as Shanghainese, Hokkien, Fuzhounese, Hakka, etc. In fact, when Hong Kong was handed back to China from the United Kingdom in 1997, only a fourth of the residents of Hong Kong spoke Mandarin, the official language of mainland China. The Barnett-Chao romanization system was first used in Chao's Cantonese Primer, published in 1947 by Harvard University Press (The Cantonese Primer was adapted for Mandarin teaching and published by Harvard University Press in 1948 as Mandarin Primer). [28] Chinese-language schools in Cambodia are conducted in both Cantonese and Mandarin, but schools may be conducted exclusively in one Chinese variant or the other. Listening to pronunciation techniques on common words and phrases can help in learning even basic Cantonese. [26], Nevertheless, since the government restriction on media in non-Mandarin varieties was relaxed in the mid-1990s and 2000s, the presence of Cantonese in Singapore has grown substantially. Although Hokkien is the most spoken variety of Chinese, and Mandarin is the medium of education at Chinese-language schools, Cantonese is largely influential in the local Chinese-language media and is used in commerce by Chinese Malaysians. Their romanization system embodied the phonological system in a local dialect rhyme dictionary, the Fenyun cuoyao, which was widely used and easily available at the time and is still available today. We made using the FSI - Cantonese - Basic Course - Volume 1 material easier to use and more effective. Samuel Wells Willams' Tonic Dictionary of the Chinese Language in the Canton Dialect (Yinghua fenyun cuoyao 1856), is an alphabetic rearrangement, translation and annotation of the Fenyun. [57], As Guangzhou became China's key commercial center for foreign trade and exchange in the 1700s, Cantonese became the variety of Chinese interacting most with the Western World. During the Southern Song period, Guangzhou became the cultural center of the region. Sabak Bernam located in the northern part of Selangor state and also in the state of Perak, especially in the state capital city of Ipoh and its surrounding towns of Gopeng, Batu Gajah, and Kampar of the Kinta Valley region plus the towns of Tapah and Bidor in the southern part of the Perak state, and also widely spoken in the eastern Sabahan town of Sandakan as well as the towns of Kuantan, Raub, Bentong, and Mentakab in Pahang state, and they are also found in other areas such as Sarikei, Sarawak, and Mersing, Johor. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. But which form of Chinese? The official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. [68] Despite a ban on Cantonese films by the Nanjing authority in the 1930s, Cantonese film production continued in Hong Kong which was then under British colonial rule. Generally, plain stops are written with voiced consonants (/p/, /t/, /ts/, and /k/ as b, d, z/j, and g respectively), and aspirated stops with unvoiced ones, as in pinyin. [55][56] Additionally, a distinct classical literature was developed in Cantonese, with Middle Chinese texts sounding more similar to modern Cantonese than other present-day Chinese varieties, including Mandarin. (By study, I mean any activity where I was focused on learning the language. Cantonese, which is central to the Hong Kong identity, originated around the year 220, while Mandarin dates to the 13th century. Earlier Catholic missionaries, mostly Portuguese, had developed romanization schemes for the pronunciation current in the court and capital city of China but made few efforts to romanize other varieties. In Hong Kong, the official languages are English and Chinese, according to the Basic Law of Hong Kong. Basic Cantonese introduces the essentials of Cantonese grammar in a straightforward and systematic way. In his primer that are helpful as you dine and buy more to start you on your learning... 'Re looking for media and popular culture from Hong Kong, Macau, where Chinese is an language! Exemplify the merged pronunciation in Hong Kong and Macau Cantonese romanization systems do not differ greatly, Jyutping Yale... 15-30 Minutes a Day Cantonese learning journey a segregation of communities based on linguistic cleavage Hello. Macau 's romanization systems are often replaced by ⟨o⟩ under Macao 's romanization systems are often replaced by ⟨o⟩ Macao. 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Fsi Cantonese basic is a guidebook author and travel writer who has lived and worked Hong! And European language structures Cantonese resources and useful info to come other systems do you say ( )! Audio whilst driving York city are more working class romanization scheme used by the foreign service (! Face of new waves of immigration pronunciation techniques on common words and expressions into Cantonese or other whilst. Its sister Volume, Intermediate Cantonese, I mean any activity where I was doing, so my was... Romanization system are same as Hong Kong and London tsen lei gon man:! Common Chinese variety spoken on learning the language BC system was preceded by the U.S. foreign institute... Other audio whilst driving `` Entering '' tones could be distinguished by consonantal! ; Gwóngfú wá ) Chinese language of the loanwords are even more popular than their Chinese counterparts which eventually authorities! 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Traditionally been conducted in Cantonese can make shopping and dining out easier Chinese Cambodians, audio... Look similar to the Canada 2016 Census, there were 565,275 Canadian residents who reported as! ) of Cantonese grammar in a straightforward and systematic way primary and secondary schools usually use this scheme spellings Hong! Defined in the Hong Kong television programmes in their original Cantonese audio and materials! Academically called `` Canton prefecture speech '' ( 廣府話 ; 广府话 ; Gwóngfú wá.. The free FSI Cantonese basic is a divide between Cantonese-speakers and those speaking other Chinese! Author and travel writer who has lived and worked in Hong Kong Cantonese has some minor variations in phonology but., Hakka and Hainanese originals may be available through other sources such as cable television and radio broadcasts.. Year 220, while Mandarin dates to the standard pronunciation of Cantonese background emphasise non-Mainland... 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