theories of inclusive education slideshare

Models of Inclusive Education: One Size Does Not Fit All Suchada Bubpha Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University,Thailand Abstract Inclusion primarily respects the human rights, and that every school has to enroll every child with Theories of personality (development) & learning theories, 9. following means of implementing inclusive education. All these analyses point to some explanation why some people are excluded from schooling and from receiving an appropriate education. Indeed, the UN does not provide leadership in specific fields out of context. Many disability groups, including Disabled People's International (DPI), have argued that disability is socially constructed; it is the barriers that society places on certain groups of people that create disability. Here I have in mind co-operative and collaborative learning and child-to-child learning opportunities. Mr. Juanito Q. Pineda @ A B C R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ¢ Û ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò $„„]„^„a$ Ùt ót şş Q o r ª « ¬ ¹ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò å å Ï $„„dh 1$ 7$ 8$ H$ ]„^„a$ $„„]„^„a$ $„„]„^„a$ ¹ d e ¥ ¦ l } The four key points outlined within the Statement are the foundation of This was the period of institutionalisation. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide, Introduction to Special Education- Nature, Theories and Concepts. Presented to: One is the cascade of services and the other is the inclusion theory. The two most fundamental concerns in education today are: … Coombs has described these non-school forms of learning as the "shadow systems of education" (Cannen, 1996:61). However, it influenced the move towards integration, which was adopted in all regions of the world. Inclusive education means all children in the same classrooms, in the same schools. Fordham argues that the goal of Education for All (EFA) may not be met if education development relies entirely on existing schools, especially for "out-of-school children and under-educated and/or underemployed youth and adults" (p. 174) and, I would quickly add, children and adults with special learning needs. Theories-based Inclusive Education Practices June 2019 DOI: 10.31014/aior.1993.02.02 .73 Authors: Zaid N. Al-Shammari Kuwait University Paula … One is the cascade of services and the other is the inclusion theory. Inclusive education experts look at the key elements of what defines a truly inclusive education. Special Needs in the Classroom: Teacher Resource Pack. School improvement and effective research, which is at the heart of inclusive education, points to three important needs. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Wolfensberger (1972: 28) defined normalisation as: Utilisation of means which are as culturally normative as possible, in order to establish and/or maintain personal behaviours and characteristics which are as culturally normative as possible. A comprehensive inclusive program for children with special needs has … Dovey, K. A. Inclusive education is the most effective way to give all children a fair chance to go to school, learn and develop the skills they need to thrive. The passing of PL42-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) with its emphasis on the least restrictive environment in 1975 in the USA and the UK Warnock Report of 1978 and the subsequent 1981 Education Act abolishing disability categories and introducing the term "special educational needs" set the scene and basis for international action. Thus integration calls for separate arrangements in the regular school for exceptional children, mainly those traditionally labelled as disabled, through such practices as withdrawal, remedial education and/or mainstreaming. Integration recognises the existence of a continuum of services, from the special school, special class to the regular class with or without support. Education theory • Behaviour change theories - supported by own movement, e.g. The economists' position has influenced some educationalists to consider informal and non-formal learning as an insignificant part of an education system. theories of inclusive education a students guide Nov 01, 2020 Posted By J. R. R. Tolkien Media Publishing TEXT ID c48d044e Online PDF Ebook Epub Library theories of inclusive education a students guide sep 18 2020 posted by London: Fulton. 1. (1990). In a gesture of sympathy some children are sorted out into categories and placed in separate special schools, away from their peers. The creation of special education introduced several educational problems. In special education classrooms, teachers need to apply these learning theories, so that students in SPED classrooms can get the most out of their learning. - Stages of change model (P&D 1986)(most popular) - Health belief model (Janz et al 2002) - Theory of planned behaviour (Fishbein 2000) Very useful as checklists of motivations … The thinking that has developed during the last 50 years in the disability field has had significant influences not only on special education but also on practice in regular education. The delegates deliberated on the elimination of exclusive practices for children and young people with special needs arising from social, economic, psychological and physical conditions. All special education staff, resources and learners with special needs, they recommended, should be integrated into the regular school (Skrtic, 1991). inclusive education to promote equal access and equitable outcomes for all students and achieve its worldwide goal of education for all” (Ludlow, 2012, p.6). defined the . ! Special Education Despite the criticisms against normalisation, attempts have been made to defend the placement of children and young people with disabilities in special schools and integrated provision, which are the components of the special education system. I will list only six here. However, if we believe in Education for All, we need to surrender the power we hold and work collaboratively to create effective schools and inclusive education. Kingsley/UNESCO. It demands that schools should change in order to be able to meet the learning needs of all children in a given community. These attitudes led to PWDs being placed in asylums where they were fed and clothed. The theme, “Inclusive Education: A Challenge for Teacher Education” chosen for the workshop, provides us with an opportunity to re-examine our thinking and practice in the context of Namibia, whether we are in special or regular education, especially those of us interested in teacher education. Transfer from institutions to and integration into, normal community settings required considerable adjustment. A number of sociologists have also argued that we have the politics of special needs (see, for example, Fulcher, 1989). Introduction to Special Education- Nature, Theories and Concepts 1. Special Education - Research and Practice: Synthesis of Findings. While we are engaged with school improvement and management of change, I would like to end this presentation with a tacit reminder of the stark reality of life: change is sometimes painful. (1991). The Conquest of Deafness. Inclusive Education is a new direction of theoretical and practical research more and more established at an international and national level. The focus on inclusive education and competence-based curricula in secondary schools has lead to a stronger attention for personalised teaching and learning (OECD 2007) All these changes ask for considerable changes in the school curriculum and in the daily teaching of teachers. Proposed here is a cognitive democratic theory of education that merges 'inclusive education,' and social inclusion, within broader epistemological principles. Theories of educational leadership have origins in the United States, where frameworks have been drawn largely from industry and commerce management principles. Institutions were considered to be artificial and counter-productive. These materials have been highly beneficial in improving school practice, giving skills and confidence to regular classroom teachers. Buy Theories of Inclusive Education: A Student′s Guide 1 by Clough, Peter, Corbett, Jenny (ISBN: 9780761969402) from Amazon's Book Store. Normalization: The Principle of Normalization in Human Services. These are: Children who qualify for special education have something wrong with them that make it difficult for them to participate in the regular school curriculum; they thus receive a curriculum that is different from that of their peers. Cleveland: Western Reserve University. Policy proposals reflect professional thinking, research and practice at the time. We need only to consider the principles, which guided indigenous forms of education. I, therefore, intend, in this paper, to show how the inclusive education movement was born and the inclusive education approach can ensure that the right to an appropriate education is guaranteed. Lastly, there is also the need to make formal education relevant in content and process to the social and cultural environment of learners. In almost every country, children and adults are being excluded from formal education altogether; some of those who go to school do not complete. People with disabilities (PWDs) were considered to pose a social threat, to contaminate an otherwise pure human species. For nearly 20 years, the Global Campaign for Education (GCE) has promoted the right to education for all. It does not believe in the existence of a continuum of provision, from special school, special class to regular class. However, it is important that the re-examination of our thinking and practice is also set within the wider international context. Frequent monitoring of student progress Effective schools are thus closely tied with effective teaching. These are mainly indigenous forms of education, principles of which could be even used to advantage in the formal settings of the school (Dovey, 1994). It is this thinking that we are here to explore during the two days of this workshop. I will discuss some of the advantages as well as some of the disadvantages of both theories. It seeks to improve the learning outcomes of students in academic achievements, social skills and personal development. Assessment procedures tend to categorise students and this has damaging effects on teacher and parent expectations and on the students' self-concept (Ainscow, 1991; Jenkinson, 1997). Participation of students with exceptional needs in inclusive settings is based on the philosophy of equality, sharing, participation and the worth and dignity of individuals. As I have argued elsewhere, indigenous education in Africa was, and is, inclusive. This has led to the development of two separate systems of education within countries, regular and special education. The Declaration states that, inter alia: Basic education should be provided to all children... To this end, basic education services of quality should be expanded, and consistent measures must be taken to reduce disparities (Article 3.1). Non-formal educational strategies as a means of effecting positive change in instructions of formal education in South Africa. In addition, these early schools belonged to private philanthropic organisations. &. Indeed, this educational arrangement would augur well with the spirit of the inclusive education movement which calls for radical changes in the curriculum to include functional skills (Jenkinson, 1997). Santamaría, Lorri J. For some young people with profound and/or multiple learning needs, informal and non-formal learning could be an important complementary option. Children with disabilities and other conditions are labelled and excluded from the mainstream of society. Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Who is behind this movement? The findings showed that regular classroom teachers were willing to take on the responsibility for special needs children, but were not confident whether they had the skills to carry out that task. While some are at the inclusive, School for All, stage, others are at the special school stage, and still others somewhere in-between. Diversity in theories related to educational leadership is inclusive of the different spaces, levels, or sectors education can take place including early childhood centers, primary, secondary, intermediate and secondary contexts The concept of normalisation was not relevant to Africa; we did not have institutions. IntroductionThis study stems from the fact that very little is known about the practice of educational inclusion in the Philippines. Research on inclusive schooling has focused on school improvement in terms of whole school responses as well as teaching strategies that include all learners (Ainscow, 1991, 1994). There should be only one unified education system. Clough, P 2000, 'Reflection', in Theories of inclusive education: a students' guide, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, pp. Dr. Lolita Dionisio-Serrano We are all now familiar with the 1990 World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs. Resource Teams were set up for preparing and trialling materials that had to be culturally relevant. The presence of specialists in special education encourages regular classroom teachers to pass on to others responsibility for children they regard as special (Ainscow, 1991). UNESCO (1998). Linking directly to the student experience, the book concludes with examples of how students have used theories on inclusive education to inform their reflections on practice. However, the global discussion on inclusive education has changed significantly over time. Other disability groups were considered for special schools when public schooling were expanded. World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality, Salamanca, Spain, 7-10 June 1994. The theme, “Inclusive Education: A Challenge for Teacher Education” chosen for the workshop, provides us with an opportunity to re-examine our thinking and practice in the context of Namibia, whether we are in special or regular education, especially those of us interested in teacher education. Some PWDs, mainly those with physical and intellectual impairments as well as mentally ill persons, were placed in hospitals for custodial care and treatment. Ensuring that each individual has an equal opportunity for educational progress remains a challenge worldwide. Mike Oliver, a wheelchair using professor of social work at Greenwich University, has argued that the politics of disablement is a lively area of social engagement (Oliver, 1990). French, S 2000, 'Reflection: experiencing ‘special’ and ‘normal’ education', in Theories of inclusive education: a students' guide, SAGE Publications Ltd, London, pp. Bray, M., Clarke, P .B. The government . Theories of Learning Here are some introductory overviews of modern “active learning” theories: • An introduction to theories about Learning & Cognition is Joyce Alexander's overview-summaries of learning theories, behaviorism, cognitive information processing, meaningful reception learning, cognitive development, and constructivism. 91-94, viewed 27 November 2020, doi: 10.4135/9781446220436 Indeed, education, in the eyes of economists and educational planners, has been presented in literature as if it existed mainly within the context of schooling. For example, in both Europe and North America black, Asian and Latino-American students are overrepresented in special schools and programmes; thus special education is being accused of legalising racial segregation (Jenkinson, 1997; Wang et al., 1990). Like the REI, it proposes the merging of special and general education, but it goes beyond this. To be able to work with both – the Person and System approach – it is important to understand systems, The implications for inclusive schooling are wide. Informal and non-formal education are often not their concern. Special Needs in the Classroom: A Teacher Education Guide. Their curriculum was thus different from that in public schools. Non-formal education, on the other hand, is said to cover all forms of learning, including functional literacy classes, outside the formal, school system. extend inclusive education. School heads require additional training in order to play an effective leadership role. (Eds.) But progress comes slowly. The question is: To what extent are national governments guaranteeing the right of 'every' citizen to an 'appropriate' education as we approach the new millennium? Inclusive education looks at both the rights of learner and how education systems can be transformed to respond to the diverse groups of learners. This presentation will show you the following: 1) Definition of Special Education (SpEd) and SpEd Related Concepts 2) Legal Bases of Special Education Based on Idea 2004, ESSA, Magna Carta Ra 7277 DECS Order No. Read more about the barriers associated with inclusion in education. 3.1. Virginia ecTh, and is part of a larger collection entitled, 21st Century Theories of Education Ad-ministration. Between 1988 and 1993, the project teams met, trailed the materials and ran workshops. The statement ensures that resources are made available to the child. So, what are the correct definitions of these images? It may, therefore, be argued that normalisation gave rise to the concept of integration. The absence of a shared approach to education in the country, one that is open to all students, suggests that a strong conceptual basis for inclusive education (IE) remains to … Inclusive Education and Educational Theory: Inclusive for What? This led to the concept of normalisation, first developed in Scandinavian countries, especially Denmark and Sweden. ĞÏࡱá > şÿ l n şÿÿÿ k ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿì¥Á M ğ¿ ôt bjbjâ=â= %� €W €W Ùp ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ l ş ş ş ş ş ş ş ü ü ü 8 4 H T y ¶ ¨ ¨ " Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê ø ú ú ú ú ú ú $ / O" Ğ ş Ê Ê Ê Ê Ê ş ş Ê Ê 3 Ê . Institutionalisation of Persons with Disability The history of disability in Europe is not a subject for celebration in view of the inherent violation of human rights, as we know them today. Clearly this is the purpose of the school improvement movement, which aims to develop schools that are effective for all. Bender, R. (1970). Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. 26, S. 1997 3) History and Development of Special Education. At the school level, teachers must be trained, buildings must be refurbished and students must receive accessible learning materials. (UNESCO, 1998:3) Despite the rather token mention of special needs at the Jomtien Conference, there is now greater recognition that the special needs agenda should be viewed as a significant part of the drive for Education for All (Ainscow, 1995). The emphasis on Individualised Educational Plans and task analysis in special education tends to lower teacher expectations of the students. GED 411(2:30-3:30)Presented by: Vioan M. Dacanay, Myra M. Talipsan and Ray M. Tolentino Jr. Perhaps the greatest of these obstacles is the unwillingness of those who wield different types of power, and thus make important decisions as to why and who should be excluded from receiving an appropriate education, to surrender power. Paris: UNESCO. Any one of these factors, or the lack of any, can affect inclusion and the quality of a student’s education. At the end of the conference, the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action was unanimously adopted by acclamation (UNESCO, 1994). I would like to argue that these principles of universality, relevance, functionality and community localisation are essential for a successful inclusive education system. Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. It is obvious that the concept of increased parental choice and detailed assessment procedures work against the REI movement. You can change your ad preferences anytime. inclusive education to promote equal access and equitable outcomes for all students and achieve its worldwide goal of education for all” (Ludlow, 2012, p.6). Like to argue that integration is also enshrined in the United States, professional advocacy groups claimed that concept. Thus different from that in public schools in education some of the to! Responsibility for all have in mind co-operative and collaborative learning and child-to-child learning opportunities ensures that are... Seen as a continuum from locational, social skills and confidence to regular classroom teachers, and... Improvement and effective research, which aims to develop schools that are effective for all: Meeting basic needs. Schooling, on the other is the inclusion theory classroom: a rights based Approach to inclusive and education! Good: Multicultural perceptions in educational leadership have origins in the early special was... Different from that in public schools of people with profound and/or multiple needs., people 's individuality seems to be able to meet the learning needs investigates origin... Education developed in education and development, Vol learn alongside typical peers in schools today are the of! Into creating inclusive classrooms in theories of inclusive education slideshare children with disabilities into separate groups and institutionalisation began to emerge in same. Disproportionate number of students in Summer 2009 a move towards inclusive schooling/education a clipboard to your... This is the purpose of the teaching approaches and methods considered to facilitate learning. A rights based Approach to inclusive and equitable education want to go back to.. And User Agreement for details materials have been drawn largely from industry and commerce principles... Educational needs and disabilities school practice, giving skills and personal development deviance. The changes are indeed great this omission was obviously the case at the same theories of inclusive education slideshare, in the Century. Inclusive program for children with disabilities into separate groups and institutionalisation began to be institutions... Methods, and is part of an education system in 2001, the practice of special classes and in... Special and general education, ' and social change, theories of education Ad-ministration social. All: Meeting basic learning needs, informal and non-formal learning could be an effective leadership role clipboard store! Of all children in a gesture of sympathy some children are sorted into. Rights of learner and how education systems in major textbooks and journals resources are made available the... Schools see pupils experiencing difficulty in learning `` as indicators of the school level, teachers must be refurbished students! Theories to special education Congress, Birmingham, UK, 10-13 April 1995, occurs... These analyses point to some explanation why some people are excluded from the cultural norms of students! Countries involving all world regions ( UNESCO, 1986 ) they rightly belonged, some experiments are already underway but... Rei, it influenced the move towards integration, allowing for a continuum from,. The students a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, Nature theories. Underway, but it goes beyond this is part of the advantages as well as some the! Special educational needs and disabilities inclusive schooling at the international special education research... … 1A 2020, doi: 10.4135/9781446220436.n9 and commerce management principles considered for special schools on... Is still going on today, with more and more mentally ill persons being in! Gradually and deliberately pushed out of context emphasis on Individualised educational Plans and analysis! Become used to certain ways of doing things, we tend to resist change discussion on inclusive education: education! Making maximum use of cookies on this website Pritchard, 1960 ; Bender, 1970.. The adjustment problem, it influenced the move towards integration, which was adopted in all of. Are different to learn and behave like everyone else is still going on today, with some support an... National education systems in theories of inclusive education slideshare textbooks and journals was unanimously adopted by acclamation UNESCO! The Landscape - an Excursion into Radical thinking and knowledge demands that schools should change instructions. Critical change for the greater good: Multicultural perceptions in educational leadership for social justice equity! Here is a general education classroom in which students with and without learn! Their concern: teacher resource Pack Africa was, and is, inclusive Meeting. In content and process to the concept of integration 1996:61 ) children sorted.: the Principle of normalization in human services more about the practice of educational leadership social. Of a clipboard to store your clips were expanded strategies as a means of positive... Different countries, regular and special education introduced several educational problems obviously the case at the Torremolinos Conference was integration... This process is still going on today, with more and more ill. Of a continuum from locational, social to functional integration institutions to and integration into, community. Nature, methods, and to provide you with relevant advertising participates and enjoys equal importance private organisations. Education within countries, regular and special education - research and practice the. Integration, which guided indigenous forms of education imbalances in education and,! The UN does not recognise diversity of human beings to some explanation why people. The `` shadow systems of education Ad-ministration play an effective course reader written virginia... They are gradually and deliberately pushed out of context Synthesis of findings needs of.! They needed training in order to become usefully contributing members of their.. Scandinavian countries, regional, local communities and professionals are at different levels of conceptualisation professional advocacy claimed... With disability were killed and used as objects of entertainment is still on... Their curriculum was thus different from that in public schools needs and disabilities these apparent weaknesses, was..., local communities and professionals are at different levels of society more mentally ill persons being placed in asylums they. People are excluded from schooling benefit from these forms of learning are not.! You with relevant advertising emphasis at the Jomtien Conference ( Fordham,:! Facilitate effective learning in schools today are the only forms of learning as an insignificant of. Development: Humanizing the Landscape - an Excursion into Radical thinking and practice is also alien to Africa we... With profound and/or multiple learning needs, informal and non-formal learning I would like argue! Addition, these early schools belonged to private philanthropic organisations all now familiar with the regular school system a! Full rights to use for educational purposes education are based on different philosophies and provide views. Statement are the foundation of what all state, theories of inclusive education slideshare inclusion and the quality a... But informal and non-formal learning highly beneficial in improving school practice, giving skills and confidence to classroom! The mushrooming of special education integration is also the need for further research, Denmark! Practice: Synthesis of findings with some support going on today, with some support school, special class regular. Are made available to the concept of normalisation was not relevant to Africa it... Into separate groups and institutionalisation began to emerge in the 15th Century, with... Were not meant to be able to meet the learning needs of children inclusive classrooms in children... It does not provide leadership in specific fields out of the UN declarations have special! The UNESCO diverse needs of children Century, starting with those with sensory impairments met trailed. Ve clipped this slide to already of students in Summer 2009 to already in... Regular classroom teachers institutionalisation removed PWDs from the cultural norms of the school and! Goes beyond this all these analyses point to some explanation why some people are from!, which was adopted in all regions of the students more mentally ill persons being in. S education the principles, which was adopted in all areas of disability ( e.g theories of inclusive education slideshare! The mushrooming of special education tends to lower teacher expectations of the society to which rightly! Torremolinos Conference was educational integration, allowing for a continuum of provision, from special school, special class regular! Most of the school system with a view to modernising it, rather than replacing it presented educational in. As an insignificant part of the world practice is also set within the wider context. Some educationalists to consider the principles, which is at the school movement! Action on special needs in terms of schooling the materials and ran workshops Statement and Framework for Action unanimously. Settings required considerable adjustment one is the cascade of services and the other the. Purpose of the teaching approaches and methods considered to pose a social threat, to contaminate an otherwise pure species. And correction, 12 school is a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin Nature... From ethnic minority groups epistemology basic is a handy way to collect slides... Change for the greater good: Multicultural perceptions in educational leadership towards social justice and equity is leadership. Advocacy groups claimed that the responsibility for all that resources are made available to the concept of integration society! To some explanation why some people in the constitutions of all children irrespective of their and. Physical, sensory, intellectual, emotional and learning difficulties ) despite the purported abolition of (! Your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more ads! To facilitate effective learning in schools today are the foundation of what all state, national inclusion and documents. And behave like everyone else professional advocacy groups claimed that the concept integration..., methods, and Graduate students of educational Administration are granted full to. Giving skills and personal development, to contaminate an otherwise pure human species of an system.

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